Canvassing for Opinion - aka "Blairs Brain on Cannabis"

IMHO prohibition sentiment requires inherent addiction to status quo, an incapacity to visualise beyond the here and now and a desperate desire to know others might feel the same... Reform is not revolutionary, rather it is evolutionary. Having survived banging your head against a brick wall the evolutionist relishes having stopped. / Blair

Monday, April 30, 2007

US marijuana even stronger than before - Stuff

US marijuana even stronger than before - New Zealand's source for World News on Stuff.co.nz:

"The marijuana being sold across the United States is stronger than ever, which could explain a growing number of medical emergencies that involve the drug, government drug experts said.

Rubbish: Prohibition arrests and associated dysfunction and inadequate health promotion accounts for 99.9% of this. Cannabis 'emergencies' - even the concept is laughable to most ER specialists.

Analysis of seized samples of marijuana and hashish showed that more of the cannabis on the market is of the strongest grade, the White House and National Institute for Drug Abuse said.

(I wish)

They cited data from the University of Mississippi's Marijuana Potency Project showing the average levels of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, in the products rose from 7 per cent in 2003 to 8.5 per cent in 2006.

And prohibition accounts for this too...

The level had risen steadily from 3.5 per cent in 1988.

Pure fantasy, the public have become more discerning at pot the price 'of gold'. Who wouldnt want more bang for the buck.

National Institute on Drug Abuse Director Dr Nora Volkow fears the problem is not being taken seriously because many adults remember the marijuana of their youth as harmless.

'It's really not the same type of marijuana,' Volkow said in a telephone interview.

It is exactly the same type of cannabis. (either that or they are crediting growers with accomplishing something that were it done with tomatoes it would have got a Nobel prize)

"This could explain why there has been an increase in the number of medical emergencies involving marijuana."

This ol'saw has been thrashed across the world, yet only the USA seems to experience the 'apparent consequences, me thinks they protest to much'

Dr Tom O'Connell (http://www.doctortom.org/) wrote a superb analysis on this - see table: "MildGreen Hypothesis - Green Light for Reform"
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Wednesday, April 25, 2007

Swallowing the Alchemist's Dictum

A reductionist approach to differential social power.

Here's one hell of an experience topical to the sedition debate (and its enforcement) .
An academics story; that should find its way round every Uni staff club.
[If only to seed some public debate (and no doubt, trepidation) amongst academics. Who will be the first to speak?]

Politically. I should wonder if our Minister of Foreign Affairs gives a toss, of for that matter, what of some of the many other admitted 'sitting members' ?, are they sufficiently rehabilitated before they can be 'permitted' to travel State-Side.

LSD AS THERAPY? WRITE ABOUT IT, GET BARRED FROM US


The US turned a collegue around at San Francisco, (after a 3-day stay in lockup) back to London, for unaccounted residue, likely of someone fingerprint or handling of a recently purchased CD crystal. The evidence 0.0001gm THC. My dog couldnt smell that amount BTW. Homeland security had to scrape the surface with a razor blade after some ion detecting machine 'alerted' to the danger. The content (and thus cover), a DVD about industrial hemp.

I think a general border ban on ALL Americans, even if only symbolically, would give em a sharp shrift. The idea might get a lot of American support.

A reductionist approach to differential social power on ANZAC day? How fitting.

Blair Anderson
an admitted author, unrehabilitated and proud!
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Monday, April 23, 2007

Vitamin Bill, anti-Cannabis

The lack of robust debate surrounding the Therapeutic Products & Medicines Bill has grave consequences for cannabis therapeutics. With an estimated 500,000 consumers directly affected, it is ironic that 'this discussion' has been stymied politically. It surely is Time to Talk.'

'The law does not and should not concern itself with such trifles' - Dr Bain, Crown Coroner, Lawyer and Pharmacist (after finding that NO New Zealander had ever died from taking a Health supplement)

see Health Freedom New Zealand - Fight the "ANTI VITAMIN BILL "

THC containing herbs are substantially embraced by Bain's comment. The science in this respect is exonerative. The illicit status of herbal cannabis remains unresolved in spite of two health select committees recommending resolution.

HEMP's mode of use constraint ['nil by mouth'] says adults are not to be trusted with medicine, yet policy incentivises youth participation in the market space. Daft. It is inconsistent with both National and Labour (and ACT) party principles to wage this war on healthy law abiding folk and endanger our children in so doing.

Now we are being told what we can put in our own mouths, and that of our children.

Is that socially approved castor oil your carrying Sonny?

The required conversation would occur if one of the key principles behind disability law [and policy] was enabled."No decision about us, without us... "

Blair Anderson
027 2657219
Blair Anderson
http://mildgreens.com
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Sunday, April 22, 2007

How Social Structures Affect Young People (Churches Youth Ministries Studies)

How Social Structures Affect Young People (Churches Youth Ministries Studies)

Goal: To understand the social issues and political processes that affect young people.

1) Read the article titled "Binge Drinking, Youth Suicide Linked to Drug Policy" on page 12 of your resource material.

Write two pages in response to this article
Include in your response:

a) your opinion on the links between cannabis prohibition and suicide

b) Your opinion on the impact of lowering the drinking age.

How you might engage in conversation about these issues with a youth group of 15-17 year olds
PRESS RELEASE - 20 April 1999:
"Binge Drinking, Youth Suicide Linked to Drug Policy"

A Parliamentary Select Committee looking at lowering the Drinking Age has been told by the Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party that youth problems such as New Zealand's abnormally high teen binge drinking and youth suicide rates are intrinsically linked to cannabis prohibition. The Justice and Law Reform Committee was recently in Christchurch to hear submissions on contentious Sale of Liquor legislation.

Blair Anderson, ALCP deputy leader, and Kevin O'Connell, policy analyst, told MP's that "youth risk behaviours such as teen pregnancies and cannabis abuse were all part of the holistic picture that the Select Committee must assess before it can recommend lowering the drinking age".

Under the Government's National Drug Policy, heavily criticised in the ALCP's [3500 word] written submission, NZ's two most popular intoxicants are treated under completely separate criteria. The drug policy began in 1995 under then Health Minister Jenny Shipley as an integrated document. However the policy was split in 1996 and now alcohol is promoted on TV while the Police Minister has supplied data showing over 100,000 cannabis charges are laid every year.

The Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party (ALCP) says reforming Government's cannabis prohibition is the key to solving the youth suicide, youth drinking and youth cannabis problems.

Last year's Health Select Committee Inquiry found that the cannabis double standard is an impediment to effective anti drug-education amongst the youth demographic, and recommended a review of cannabis law. The ALCP argue that Government rejection of this recommendation has been made on completely invalid grounds.

This outrageous situation is a betrayal of the people of NZ say the Party. "There is no scientific credibility in the National Drug Double Standard, and it is little wonder the youth of NZ have switched off to the hypocritical messages of politicians", said Mr Anderson, echoing Associate Health Minister Tuariki Delemare's famous speech to the United Nations General Assembly on Drugs, (June 10 1998). Around 70% of NZ's youth population are using or have tried cannabis.

The ALCP representatives sought an undertaking that Parliament further investigate the cannabis issue, to which the chairperson said the Committee's discussion was on the legislation before it on liquor law reform. The Committee, chaired by ACT's Patricia Schnauer, accepted however that consideration of wider drug issues and barriers to effective health promotion highlighted by a fellow Committee "was indeed relevant to the discussion on liquor reform".

In answer to a question from National's Wayne Mapp, Mr. O'Connell pointed to Holland where youth are supported, decriminalised cannabis usage is less than New Zealand's, and the youth suicide rate is less than one fifth of ours. "Despite a recognition in our National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy for the need to value youth, the majority of teenagers are currently labelled criminals under cannabis legislation," he said. The Party's submission implies that in holistic terms, if we are looking for a reason for our bewildering youth suicide rate, the government's inappropriate and ill-justified cannabis policy is responsible.

The Justice and Law Reform Committee are considering the possibility that a systematic and honest approach to youth-drug issues may be the key to implementing genuine Harm Reduction of alcohol use (which the Liquor Bill specifically addresses), and other problematic youth behaviours.

Members from political parties present on the Committee, including ACT, Labour, Alliance and NZ First, thanked Mrs Anderson and O'Connell for their useful contribution.
Blair Anderson - Deputy Leader (03) 389 4065, Brandon Hutchison - Secretary (03) 364-2868 (025) 492 990
Taken from: www.alcp.org.nz
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Friday, April 20, 2007

Dad Makes Sign Wear Sign for Using Drugs

Dad Makes Son Wear Sign for Using Drugs

Oh dear... at least the school principle could see whats broken.
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Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Suppressive effect/Cancer Cells and Cannabis

Harvard University researchers have found that, in both laboratory and mouse studies, delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cuts tumor growth in half in common lung cancer while impeding the cancer's ability to spread.

This can't be that evil plant Jim Anderton is harping on about, surely?
The plant the Americans think has no medical efficacy! Can't be...

Cannabis laws 'barbaric': UK MP
A disabled woman found guilty of growing and possessing cannabis is “paying for the cowardice of politicians of all parties”, according to a Labour MP.

We'll he's got that right!

Blair Anderson
http://mildgreens.com

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Thursday, April 12, 2007

Basil Omar to hang for 1kg of Cannabis herb

Letter to Malaysian authorities (NZer's incensed by this and other recent cannabis injustice hangings may wish to join ENCOD and write similarily to the NZ Malaysian Embassy and/or copy your concerns to NZ chapters, especially university campus branches of Amnesty International)

Dear friends, Here is the ENCOD letter to the Malaysian authorities (see address below ) concerning the fate of Mr. Basil Omar, sentenced to death after being caught with approximately 1 kilo of cannabis.

We will send the letter as soon as we know which authorities are best placed to direct the letter to. We hope to get this information soon from Malaysian human rights groups and/or Amnesty International. If you have any suggestions to the content of the letter, please let me know.

Best wishes, Joep

TO: MALAYSIAN AUTHORITIES

As a European coalition of NGO's and individuals concerned with the global drug issue, we would like to inform you herewith of our deepest concerns about the upcoming execution of Mr. Basil Omar (36), whose death sentence was confirmed recently.

Mr. Basil Omar was caught in possession of 1 kilo of cannabis on January 31, 1990. He was sentenced to death in September 1994. On 20 March 2007, Mr. Omar's appeal to the Malaysian Federal Court to have the death sentences by hanging reversed, failed.

The use of the death penalty as such runs counter to the universal protection of human rights and is at odds with the international trend away from the use of this measure. Very few countries currently carry out executions: provisional figures compiled by Amnesty International indicate that only 20 of the United Nation's 193 member states carried out state killings in 2006. In countries such as South Korea and Taiwan, authorities are considering to abolish this measure. We hope that this will soon be the case in Malaysia as well.

However, in this particular case, we believe there is no valid argument whatsoever to carry out this punishment, and urge you to do whatever is possible to reverse the sentence.

Cannabis is a natural product, a non-lethal substance. Its consumption is widespread around the world, as it has been for thousands of years among many different cultures and people. In most European countries, cannabis possession for personal consumption is not even penalised anymore. In the coming years, we expect major law changes that will allow for the cultivation and distribution of cannabis to adults in several European countries.

In spite of executions of drug traffickers in Malaysia, the country is not and will never be drug-free. Many people in Malaysia want to consume cannabis and other drugs, so it is obvious that other people will supply them. Taking the life of Mr. Omar will not change that situation.

Drugs trafficking is the core business of globally organised criminal organisations. Mr. Omar or others who are occasionally caught by authorities with relatively small amounts do not have major responsibilities in this business. Killing them will not scare the drugs gangs away. On the contrary, it is possible that thanks to these punishments, the drugs barons can continue to justify extraordinary high prices for their goods.

ENCOD strongly believes that the drugs problem can only be reduced by effective social and health policies, not by legal sanctions. Innovative strategies for addressing the issue both globally and locally are needed, and the harsh implementation of drug prohibition is a major impediment to thee introduction of these strategies. The reinforcement of policies that have failed until now will increase the lack of credibility of authorities in the opinion of the general public.

We call upon your wisdom to apply principles of sound governance and reverse the death sentence for Mr. Basil Omar. We also offer you our co-operation in order to convince European governments to support Malaysia in the creation of structures which would allow for the reduction of harm that the production, trade and consumption of illicit drugs can cause.

Sincerely yours,

On behalf of ENCOD,

Christine Kluge, Germany
Marina Impallomeni, Italy
Virginia Montañes, Spain
Farid Ghehioueche, France
Jan van der Tas, Netherlands
Joep Oomen, Belgium

HIGH COMMISSION OF MALAYSIA
WELLINGTON Address : No. 10 Washington Avenue Brooklyn,P.O. Box 9422, Wellington,New Zealand
Telephone : (64-4) 385 2439/ 801 5659 (Am) Fax :(64-4) 385 6973
E-Mail: mwwelton@xtra.co.nz

Other International addresses

also see Transform Drug Policy Foundation(UK) http://transform-drugs.blogspot.com/2007/04/plea-to-prevent-execution-of-basil-omar.html

Blair Anderson, New Zealand
mildgreens.com
ph (643) 389 4065 cell 027 265 7219

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Clifford's "High Times" in Green Politics

This could be NZ that Clifford Wallace Thornton is talking about (two party politics/fpp electorates)?

an excerpt from High Times Magazine,
see http://www.hightimes.com/ht/Activism/content.php?bid=561&aid=3 for full text


Fundraising:
The biggest failure of my campaign - out of things I could control (I could not completely control the debates or media coverage) was fundraising. I have worked in three significant movements - drug policy reform, the anti-war movement and democracy reform - but these movements (like most others) are infected with the two party virus. They have no confidence in third parties and therefore most of their participants do not fund them.

I was particularly disappointed in the drug policy reform movement where I have had a fifteen-year career. Although there were a few exceptions my career-long allies, who I have no doubt respect my work, did not provide major funding for this campaign. Many did not even make token contributions as a sign of respect or friendship. Similarly the peace and democracy movements provided insignificant funding.

Frankly, this is one reason that all these movements (and the union, environmental and women's rights movements) are weaker than they should be. They cow-tow to the Democratic Party even though the Democrats do very little for them - indeed often hurt their agenda. They give support no matter what the Democratic candidate stands for, thus, they are taken for granted. I'm not sure how to convince them that this is a failed strategy but we need to keep trying. They will not make progress on their issues until they get serious about electoral politics - putting their agenda far ahead of loyalty to any political party.

Many in the Green Party that nominated me do not understand the importance of money. While I did receive support from some members of each party, generally speaking I was disappointed. The Greens in particular seem very uncomfortable with money as they see it as a corrupting influence no matter what the circumstances. We need to find ways to convince members of the party that funding their candidates is THE top priority. There were times I went to Green Party meetings and did not even leave with enough money to pay the gas bill! Sadly, the media measures potential for success by how much money we raise, more than by the strength of our ideas or the number of volunteers we have. Money is critical and must be made the top priority. It should not be feared but welcomed!


--
Blair Anderson

ph (643) 389 4065 cell 027 265 7219
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Wednesday, April 11, 2007

Candor's 'drug driving' 5 Point Driver Guide

'We have gone from just 96 injury accidents with 4 deaths in the year 2001 to 114 injury crashes and 5 fatal ones last Easter. This year is not looking good. It's quite probable that seasonal cannabis over-indulgence is to blame for bad crashes being steadily on the upswing on consecutive Easter breaks lately.'
 
Candor Trust should get the peddlers of crisis award!
 

/ Blair Anderson
 
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Thursday, April 05, 2007

Ecstasy really does unleash the love hormone

Clubbers who take the "love drug" ecstasy really might be "loved up". Studies in rats suggest the drug causes a brain surge of oxytocin - the hormone that helps bond couples, as well as mothers to their babies.

Earlier research found increased oxytocin in the blood of people who had taken ecstasy. However, many drugs increase blood oxytocin without raising it in the brain - something thought necessary for any "pro-social" effects.

Iain McGregor at the University of Sydney in Australia, and his colleagues studied the effects of ecstasy in rats, which, like people, become more sociable on the drug. "It's very characteristic behaviour. They lie next to each other and chill out," McGregor says.

The team gave the rats the equivalent of two to three ecstasy tablets in an adult human and found that the drug activated oxytocin-containing neurons in an area of their brains called the hypothalamus. When they gave the rats a drug that blocked brain receptors for oxytocin, the increased sociability almost disappeared.

Why it didn't disappear entirely isn't clear. It could be that the dose of the receptor blocker was too low, or that other brain chemicals, such as dopamine, are also involved in triggering the sociable behaviour, McGregor says.

"Sensual, not sexual"

The finding ties in with reports from people on ecstasy about how they feel, McGregor points out. Rodent studies have shown a massive surge of oxytocin after orgasm in males. "It's interesting that guys on ecstasy feel more sensual than sexual," McGregor says. "It could be that raising oxytocin levels puts them in that sort of post-orgasmic state where they're actually not very good at performing sexually but they feel really good about the person they're with."

McGregor's team now plan to investigate the levels of oxytocin in rats' brains after they've taken MDMA, and to see which parts of the brain in particular are affected.

They suspect that the oxytocin release might be implicated not only in the pro-social effects of ecstasy but also in the reinforcing effects. There is much research to be done on how drugs of abuse affect oxytocin in the brain, says McGregor. "What we know at the moment could be written on the back of a postage stamp."

Journal reference: Journal of Neuroscience (DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.02.032)

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Monday, April 02, 2007

Afghanistan: Extraordinary Move to Legalise Poppy Crops

Tony Blair must have been listening to the MildGreens: Afghanistan and Restorative Justice, powerpoint/talk last week!

Those who were at the last (Christchurch) Middle East Solidarity Group (MESG) meeting might be interested to note that the idea (and scale of the problem) is gaining traction and being brought home to Gt Britain. Of course the consequence of this initiative is far reaching and will be 'dismissed' by the Americans (and ipso facto, the UN) but history will not judge such prohibiters kindly, as it sure looks pretty stupid maintaining the 'blindingly obvious' dysfunction in perpetuity....

/The other Blair


---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: clifford thornton <mailto:efficacy@msn.com>
Date: Apr 2, 2007 2:15 PM
Subject: Afghanistan: Extraordinary Move to Legalise Poppy Crops

http://www.independent.co.uk/

Opium for the People:

EXTRAORDINARY MOVE TO LEGALISE POPPY CROPS

The 'IoS' can reveal Tony Blair is considering calls to legalise poppy production in the Taliban's backyard. The plan could cut medical shortages of opiates worldwide, curb smuggling - and hit the insurgents.

The buds of millions of poppy flowers are swelling across Afghanistan. In the far southern provinces bordering Iran, the harvest will start later this month. By mid- May the fields around British military camps in Helmand will be ringing to the sound of scythes, rather than gunfire.

And this year's opium harvest will almost certainly be the largest ever. In the five years since the overthrow of the Taliban regime, land under cultivation for poppy has grown from 8,000 to 165,000 hectares.

The US wants to step up eradication programmes, crop-spraying from the air. But, desperate to win "hearts and minds" in Afghanistan and protect British troops, Tony Blair is on the brink of a U-turn that will set him on a collision course with President George Bush.

The Prime Minister has ordered a review of his counter-narcotics strategy - including the possibility of legalising some poppy production - after an extraordinary meeting with a Tory MP on Wednesday, The Independent on Sunday has learnt. Tobias Ellwood, a backbencher elected less than two years ago, has apparently succeeded where ministers and officials have failed in leading Mr Blair to consider a hugely significant switch in policy.

Supporters of the measure say it would not only curb an illegal drugs trade which supplies 80 per cent of the heroin on Britain's streets, but would hit the Taliban insurgency and help save the lives of British troops. Much of the legally produced drug could be used to alleviate a shortage of opiates for medicinal use in Britain and beyond, they say.

A Downing Street spokesman confirmed last night that Mr Blair is now considering whether to back a pilot project that would allow some farmers to produce and sell their crops legally to drugs companies. His change of heart has surprised the Foreign Office, which recently denied that licit poppy production was being considered. A freedom of information request has revealed that the Government looked carefully at proposals to buy up Afghanistan's poppy crop as early as 2000, under the Taliban. The removal of that regime - justified to both US and British voters partly in terms of a victory in the "war on drugs" - has made it politically difficult to financially reward poppy farmers.

But the links between drug warlords, terrorism and the Taliban are clear. Traffickers hold poor farmers in a form of bondage through the supply of credit, paid back in opium. Many of those fighting British troops during the winter months will return to their villages to harvest poppy crops in the spring and summer. The traffickers' huge profits help to fund the fight against Nato troops.

The White House has consistently rejected the idea that opium could help to solve Afghanistan's chronic poverty. But there are clear signs of a shift in international opinion towards allowing a legal trade. Pervez Musharraf, the President of Pakistan, has said that "buying the crop is an idea we could explore". He added: "We would need money from the US or the UN. But we could buy the whole crop and destroy it. In that way the poor growers would not suffer."

The Afghan President, Hamid Karzai, who has opposed the idea in the past, is said privately to have changed his mind - as long as the international community takes on any licensing scheme.

Campaigners who have been agitating for the change in policy point out that the opium, rather than being destroyed, could alleviate a worldwide shortage of medicinal opiates. Ministers recently admitted that the NHS is running short of diamorphine and codeine. Many developing countries, particularly in Africa, do not have adequate stocks of basic pain relief; campaigners refer to a "global pain crisis".

Britain leads the UKP1bn-a-year international operation to wipe out poppy cultivation in Afghanistan. This country alone has spent almost UKP200m over the past four years on efforts to eradicate poppy fields and persuade farmers to grow other crops.

Meanwhile, in Helmand province, a Taliban stronghold, poppy production rose 169 per cent last year alone, according to official UN figures. Some 400,000 Afghans are thought to be engaged in the trade, which dwarfs the country's official GDP. Last year Afghanistan produced 92 per cent of the world's opium, worth almost $3bn. Counter-narcotic operations by the Afghan government are considered at best ineffective and at worst corrupt, as local politicians order the destruction of rival crops and the protection of their own. Only 43,000 acres of poppy were destroyed last year.

Britain has resisted US pressure to spray poppies from the air, fearing a widespread destruction of poor farmers' livelihoods would simply drive more of them into the hands of the Taliban. Last year, troops stationed in Helmand were plunged into some of the fiercest fighting experienced by British soldiers since the Korean War, despite carefully avoiding destroying local poppy crops.

Opponents of the proposal to buy up crops or license growers claim that it could simply drive up the price of opium, making it yet more attractive to farmers. The US State Department doubts that the Afghan government can be trusted to keep legally produced narcotics separate from the illegal product. While Turkey diverted production successfully from the black market to legitimate medicinal supplies, Afghanistan, it says, has neither the infrastructure nor the security to make legal poppy production economically viable or safe.

Efforts to foster alternative crops could also be at risk. Britain, with others, has ploughed tens of millions of pounds into persuading farmers to grow pomegranates, potatoes and mint.

But Mr Ellwood, a former officer in the Royal Green Jackets and now MP for Bournemouth East, became convinced of the need for a pilot project to test the idea of licit production on one of his frequent trips to Afghanistan. He believes it would be possible to use the profits from the trade to build up the infrastructure and, once controlled by the government rather than the drug barons, farmers could gradually be weaned off poppies and on to alternative cash crops.

He delivered a presentation to the Prime Minister and Foreign Office officials on Wednesday, suggesting an intermediary co-ordinate the efforts of government agencies and NGOs . He proposed that Britain oversee a pilot project in Helmand.

A spokesman for No 10 said that Mr Blair agreed to consider the idea, and would reply before Easter, adding: "The Prime Minister did note there were doubts about the capacity of the Afghan government in this regard."

Mr Ellwood said: "It is ironic that the world, including Britain, experiences a shortage of diamorphine and codeine, but we choose to prevent the fourth poorest country in the world from producing it. Instead we are destroying the crops, alienating communities who then seek support from the Taliban. Five years since the invasion, peace remains a distant hope. Until the issue of poppy crops is solved, the fragile umbrella of security will never be strong enough for long-term reconstruction and development initiatives to take root."

The Precious Harvest That Can Kill or Cure

Every year tens of thousands more hectares of Afghanistan are given over to illegal poppy production. President Hamid Karzai has called the opium trade his country's 'cancer'. This year's harvest starts within weeks.

Tony Blair has become the latest figure to consider whether it is possible to divert the raw product grown in fields throughout Afghanistan to legal outlets.

The Legal Route

Village elders are given responsibility for ensuring that licensed farmers grow only enough poppies to fulfil their yearly quotas and also grow other, edible crops.

Farmers are allowed only to supply poppy straw, the basic ingredient of opium, which is then taken to local, regulated plants to make the narcotic.

Legitimate drugs firms buy the licensed opium from Afghanistan and make medical opiates to alleviate the pain of patients in hospitals all over the world.

The Illegal Route

Opium traders hold farmers in virtual bondage through the supply of huge loans that enable families to survive through the winter, but in summer they are paid in opium.

Farmers make their own opium, which is handed to traders. They pass it up the chain of command to drugs warlords who process it into heroin.

After being trafficked through Iran and the Balkans, the Afghan heroin hits the streets - and the veins of Britain's addicts - for about UKP50 a gram.
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